Case Study: The 2010 Conservative and Liberal Democrat Coalition Government
In May 2010 a General Election for the British Parliament was held in Britain. The Conservative Party gained the most seats in Parliament. However no one political party gained 326 seats. This gave them enough seats by themselves to ask the Queen to form a Government and for the Leader of that party to become the next Prime Minister.
- Gordon Brown MP – Leader of the Labour Party and Prime Minister
- David Cameron MP – Leader of the Conservative Party
- Nick Clegg MP– Leader of the Liberal Democrat Party
- William Hague MP – Shadow Foreign Secretary and Chief Negotiator for the Conservatives
- Danny Alexander MP – Chief Negotiator for the Liberal Democrats
- This was the first peacetime Coalition Government since 1931.
- The coalition parties combined had 59% of the vote from those eligible in the 2010 General Election.
- Gordon Brown had been Prime Minister since taking over from Tony Blair in June 2007
From the time the election result was known the Conservatives and Liberal Democrats entered into intense negotiations against a backdrop of the current Prime Minister attempting to form his own Government if they could not strike a deal.
The negotiations took place in the Cabinet Office Briefing Rooms (COBR) led by William Hague and Danny Alexander. These rooms are well known for their use during crises when top ranking officials and politicians attend meetings known as COBR due to the location.
On Tuesday 11 May, Gordon Brown resigned as Prime Minister bringing to an end 13 years of the Labour Party being in power. He gave a speech outside No.10 with his wife Sarah and their two sons at his side. Mr Brown said the job had been a ‘privilege’. In stepping down, Deputy Labour Leader Harriet Harman became the Leader of the Labour Party ahead of a contest.
After seeking permission from Queen Elizabeth II to form a Government, David Cameron became the 53rd Prime Minister of Great Britain and Nick Clegg became Deputy Prime Minister. After posing together outside No.10 Downing Street, they launched the coalition Government on 12 May to the eagerly waiting press in the Rose Garden of No.10.
The Coalition Agreement: Foreword
"This is an historic document in British politics: the first time in over half a century two parties have come together to put forward a programme for partnership government.
As our parties have worked together it has become increasingly clear to us that, although there are differences, there is also common ground. We share a conviction that the days of big government are over; that centralisation and top-down control have proved a failure.
We believe that the time has come to disperse power more widely in Britain today; to recognise that we will only make progress if we help people to come together to make life better.
In short, it is our ambition to distribute power and opportunity to people rather than hoarding authority within government. That way, we can build the free, fair and responsible society we want to see.
We are agreed that the first duty of government is to safeguard our national security and support our troops in Afghanistan and elsewhere – and we will fulfil that duty. We are also agreed that the most urgent task facing this coalition is to tackle our record debts, because without sound finances, none of our ambitions will be deliverable. Difficult decisions will have to be taken in the months and years ahead, but we will ensure that fairness is at the heart of those decisions so that all those most in need are protected. Working together, we are confident that we can take the country through difficult times to better days ahead.
Tackling the deficit is essential, but it is not what we came into politics to achieve. We stood for Parliament – and for the leadership of our parties – with visions of a Britain better in every way. And we have found in this coalition that our visions are not compromised by working together; they are strengthened and enhanced. That is why this coalition has the potential for era-changing, convention-challenging, radical reform.
For example, we both want to build a new economy from the rubble of the old. We will support sustainable growth and enterprise, balanced across all regions and all industries, and promote the green industries that are so essential for our future. This document shows how, with radical plans to reform our broken banking system and new incentives for green growth.
We both want a Britain where social mobility is unlocked; where everyone, regardless of background, has the chance to rise as high as their talents and ambition allow them. To pave the way, we have both agreed to sweeping reform of welfare, taxes and, most of all, our schools – with a breaking open of the state monopoly and extra money following the poorest pupils so that they, at last, get to go to the best schools, not the worst.
We both want a Britain where our political system is looked at with admiration, not anger. We have a shared ambition to clean up Westminster and a determination to oversee a radical redistribution of power away from Westminster and Whitehall to councils, communities and homes across the nation. Wherever possible, we want people to call the shots over the decisions that affect their lives.
And we are both committed to turning old thinking on its head and developing new approaches to government. For years, politicians could argue that because they held all the information, they needed more power. But today, technological innovation has – with astonishing speed – developed the opportunity to spread information and decentralise power in a way we have never seen before. So we will extend transparency to every area of public life. Similarly, there has been the assumption that central government can only change people’s behaviour through rules and regulations. Our government will be a much smarter one, shunning the bureaucratic levers of the past and finding intelligent ways to encourage, support and enable people to make better choices for themselves.
In every part of this agreement, we have gone further than simply adopting those policies where we previously overlapped. We have found that a combination of our parties’ best ideas and attitudes has produced a programme for government that is more radical and comprehensive than our individual manifestos.
For example, when you take Conservative plans to strengthen families and encourage social responsibility, and add to them the Liberal Democrat passion for protecting our civil liberties and stopping the relentless incursion of the state into the lives of individuals, you create a Big Society matched by big citizens.
This offers the potential to completely recast the relationship between people and the state: citizens empowered; individual opportunity extended; communities coming together to make lives better. We believe that the combination of our ideas will help us to create a much stronger society: one where those who can, do; and those who cannot, we always help.
And in the crucial area of public service reform, we have found that Liberal Democrat and Conservative ideas are stronger combined. For example, in the NHS, take Conservative thinking on markets, choice and competition and add to it the Liberal Democrat belief in advancing democracy at a much more local level, and you have a united vision for the NHS that is truly radical: GPs with authority over commissioning; patients with much more control; elections for your local NHS health board. Together, our ideas will bring an emphatic end to the bureaucracy, top-down control and centralisation that has so diminished our NHS.
Three weeks ago we could never have predicted the publication of this document. After the election, of course, there was the option of minority government – but we were uninspired by it. Instead, there was the option of a coalition in the national interest – and we seized it. When we set off on this journey we were two parties with some policies in common and a shared desire to work in the national interest. We arrive at this programme for government a strong, progressive coalition inspired by the values of freedom, fairness and responsibility. This programme is for five years of partnership government driven by those values. We believe that it can deliver radical, reforming government, a stronger society, a smaller state, and power and responsibility in the hands of every citizen. Great change and real progress lie ahead.
David Cameron Prime Minister & Nick Clegg Deputy Prime Minister