James VI of Scotland becomes James I of England, the first King of the Stuart dynasty
Gunpowder Plot, in which Catholics angered by their continued persecution were thwarted in their plan to blow up Parliament on its opening day
James I himself tore the ‘Protestation’ against limits he had placed on the Commons’ freedom of speech out of the Commons Journal
James I died and was succeeded by his son Charles I. In June Parliament granted the new king customs duties (tonnage and poundage) for one year only, instead of for life
Charles I levied a Forced Loan, without parliamentary approval, to raise money for war and imprisoned without trial many of those who refused to pay.
Charles I assented to the Commons’ Petition of Right, which condemned extra-parliamentary taxation and arbitrary imprisonment, but it was not enrolled properly as a statute.
The Speaker of the Commons was physically prevented, by three Members in the Commons, from adjourning the House until resolutions were passed against the king’s policies. Parliament was dissolved.
Exchequer judges confirmed the King’s prerogative right to levy knighthood fees on landowners worth £40 a year or more.
Ship money contributions were demanded by the King for the first time from all counties, not just those on the coast. At the same time forest courts were revived to raise money by forest fines.
Scottish Presbyterians, Covenanters, revolted against Charles I’s religious innovations and started the first Bishops’ War against England.
Charles I, needing money for the Bishops’ War, summoned Parliament, which met for less than a month and is known as the Short Parliament.
English troops were defeated in the second Bishops’ War. The Treaty of Ripon demanded that Charles I pay Covenanter troops £850 a day while they remained in England.
Charles I, desperate for money, summoned Parliament again – the Long Parliament.
The Long Parliament was convened and attacked measures and people associated with Personal Rule.
The “Root and Branch” Petition calling for the abolition of bishops from the Church of England and its reform “root and branch” was presented to Parliament.
The Earl of Strafford was attainted and executed (May), and Acts were passed ensuring continuation of Parliament and declaring non-parliamentary taxation illegal (May-August).
The Grand Remonstrance against Charles I’s activities passed the Commons, barely, and was not even sent to the Lords, before being rejected by the King.
Charles I entered the Commons chamber to arrest five Members of the House, but they had already fled.
The Lords and Commons passed the Militia Ordinance, which did not receive the assent of King, establishing parliamentary control over county militias.
Charles I raised his standard at Nottingham, formally starting the English Civil War in February.
Parliament passed New Model Ordinance, establishing the New Model Army which would fight for Parliament against the King.
Charles I surrendered, ending the first Civil War.
The Leveller tract, The Agreement of the People, was published. Its proposals for universal suffrage (for men) and more equal representation were debated at Putney Debates.
Pride’s Purge, when Army leaders excluded MPs thought to be sympathetic to Charles I from Parliament; the remaining MPs were known as the Rump Parliament.
Charles I was executed. The Commons abolished the monarchy and the House of Lords and declared England a Commonwealth.
Oliver Cromwell dissolved the Rump Parliament (April), called the Nominated Assembly (July) and by the Instrument of Government was made Lord Protector (December).
Cromwell agreed to the Humble Petition and Advice but refused to be made King.
Oliver Cromwell died, and was succeeded by his son Richard Cromwell.
Richard Cromwell was deposed, and political anarchy ensued.
Charles II, son of Charles I in exile in France, was restored as King and the Lords were summoned to Parliament again.
The Cavalier Parliament first met and sat until January 1679: The bishops sat again in the Lords and the Act of Uniformity enforced conformity to the English Church.
Charles II agreed in the secret treaty of Dover to convert to Catholicism in exchange for French subsidies.
Parliament passed a Test Act to prevent Catholics from holding office, by which the successor to the throne, James, Duke of York, had to resign.
Four peers were imprisoned by the House of Lords for claiming that Parliament was automatically dissolved because it had not met for over a year.
Parliament passed a Test Act to prevent Catholics from sitting in Parliament.
The first Exclusion Parliament met: the Commons drafted a Bill to exclude the Duke of York from the succession.
The second Exclusion Parliament met: the Exclusion Bill was defeated in the Lords.
The third Exclusion Parliament met at Oxford for only a week, the last time Parliament met outside Westminster.
The “Tory reaction”, saw purges, prosecutions, and executions of prominent Exclusionists, or Whigs, as they were now called.
Charles II died in February and James II’s Parliament first met in May, but after November was continuously prorogued until it was dissolved in July 1687.
Godden v Hales allowed James II to dispense individuals from Test Acts. The bishop of London was suspended from his office for not taking action against an anti-Catholic preacher.
James II issued his Declaration of Indulgence for Nonconformists and sent agents to find potential MPs who would vote for repeal of the Test Acts.
The “Seven Bishops” prosecuted by James II for refusing to announce the Declaration of Indulgence in their churches were acquitted. The “Immortal Seven” sent their invitation to William of Orange to invade England after the birth of James II’s son.
The “Glorious Revolution” – William of Orange invaded England and James II fled to France. A Convention was summoned to decide the political settlement.
The Convention Parliament voted that James II had ‘abdicated’ and that William and Mary should be offered the Crown (February). The House of Commons read the Declaration of Rights to William and Mary, which they later enacted as statute, the Bill of Rights (December). Parliament declared war on France (the Nine Years’ War) (May).
Parliament passed an Act establishing a Commons’ Commission of Public Accounts to oversee the Crown’s use of the revenue.
The Bank of England was founded by parliamentary statute (April). The Triennial Act providing for parliamentary elections every three years was passed (November). Queen Mary died and William III became sole ruler (December)
Revelations of a plot to assassinate William III led to the drafting of an oath of loyalty to the King, rejected by many Tory MPs and peers (Lords).
The Treaty of Ryswyck ended the Nine Years’ War.